The Seven Luck Gods

As 2021 draws to a close, this is a nice opportunity to review a fascinating aspect of Japanese spirituality: the Seven Luck Gods!

The Seven Luck Gods or shichi-fukujin (七福神) exemplify the syncretic nature of Japanese religion, because the seven gods have different origins including some native Shinto kami to Hindu gods who have undergone a long transformation from their original forms in India in antiquity.

Here are the seven gods as depicted on my wife’s tea tin from left to right:

Name + KanjiAspectPossible Origin
Daikokuten
(大黒天)
Commerce, prosperity, agriculture (hence he is depicted with rice bales)Daikokuten is likely a blending of the native kami Ōkuninushi and (very indirectly) the Indian god Shiva through a Buddhist deity named Mahākāla.
Bishamonten (毘沙門天)Victory, authorityBishamonten has been a guardian deity in Buddhism for a long time, but is descended from the Indian deity Kubera.
Benzaiten
(弁財天)
Patron goddess of the artsDescended from the Indian goddess Saraswati, imported via Buddhism
Ebisu
(恵比寿)
Prosperity, wealthEbisu is a native Japanese kami that has been imported into the Seven Luck Gods.
Fukurokuju
(福禄寿)
LongevityJurōjin is a Chinese-Taoist deity who symbolized the southern pole star, and now for his pronounced skull.
Jurōjin
(寿老人)
Longevity, happiness, wealthAnother Chinese-imported Taoist figure, Fukurokuju overlaps with Jurōjin in some ways, but is distinguished by the animals that accompany him.
Hotei
(布袋)
Luck, guardian of childrenHotei is the so-called “fat buddha” in Asian tradition, but is in fact has a complicated history. TL;DR he is not a buddha, but kind of a saintly figure in Chinese-Buddhist tradition.
source: Wikipedia
The Treasure Ship by Utagawa Hiroshige, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

As with the picture above, you’ll often see the seven deities riding a “treasure ship” (takarabuné 宝船) and/or smiling, laughing and playing games in a carefree manner. In times like this, such images are particularly comforting and something to hope for in the year ahead.

From a cultural standpoint, it’s fascinating to see how Japanese religious tradition has imported various deities and traditions from Chinese Taoism, but also from India via imported Buddhist religion, and how it all blends with native Shinto religion to form what we see today.

Here’s an example ofuda (お札) of Daikokuten we have in our home:

And I have an omamori charm from Enoshima Shrine from 2019 of Benzaiten I keep in my wallet;

These are just some of the examples of the Seven Luck Gods you’ll see in contemporary Japanese religious tradition.

Published by Doug

🎵Toss a coin to your Buddhist-Philhellenic-D&D-playing-Japanese-studying-dad-joke-telling-Trekker, O Valley of Plentyyy!🎵He/him

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